Koru Mindfulness Meditation


Koru Mindfulness Poster

Course Resources

Instruction to Mindfulness

Class #1


Belly or diaphragmatic breathing: Belly breathing is a calming skill that you can use to calm yourself if you are feeling anxious or to quiet your mind to help with sleep. You will be taught to breathe deeply, inhaling by using your diaphragm to push your stomach out rather than using the muscles of your chest wall to fill your lungs.

Guided Belly Breathing


Dynamic breathing: Dynamic breathing is a very active skill that you can use if you are restless, anxious or tired, and need to a way to focus your attention and energize your body. Students use dynamic breathing when they are tired or worried and still have lots of work to finish.


Body scan: In this meditation you will learn to use physical sensations in the body to anchor your awareness in the present moment.

Guided Body Scan

Class #2


Walking meditation: When practicing walking meditation, you learn to use as your anchor to present-moment awareness the sensations in your feet as you slowly walk across the floor. Students use walking meditation when they are too sleepy or too restless to meditate sitting still.


Gatha: A gatha is a series of words, sometimes referred to as a meditation poem that you use to help you focus your mind during meditation. Many students find that their minds wander so much that they can’t keep their attention in the present for even a moment. A gatha provides you with a stronger anchor for your wandering mind. Students use gathas when they feel very distracted and unable to settle their attention on their breath.

Koru Gatha Script Handout – Class #2

Class #3


Guided Imagery: Guided imagery is a way of calming your body and mind if you are feeling particularly anxious or stressed. Using all of your senses, you imagine yourself in a comfortable and safe place, which allows your physiology to quiet and calm. Students use guided imagery if they are dealing with high levels of stress or worry.


Labeling Thoughts: An important aspect of mindfulness meditation is the ability to notice your thoughts and then, without judgment, release them, returning your attention to your object of meditation, most commonly the sensation of your breath as it enters and leaves your body. Labeling is a technique that makes it easier to release your thoughts and return to your present moment experience. Students use labeling to strengthen their ability to stay non-judgmentally present with the goings-on in their busy minds.

Class #4


Eating meditation: With eating meditation, you learn to pay very careful attention to all of the sensations involved in eating, as well as the thoughts and feelings you have when you eat. Eating meditation enhances the pleasure in eating and allows you to consume your food in a more healthy way, listening to the reactions and needs of your body.


Labeling Feelings: This meditation builds on the labeling practice from last week, providing you a skill for managing strong feelings that may arise during meditation. Sometimes identifying the feelings that are underneath persistent or recurring thoughts can be very helpful, keeping you from getting carried too far away from the present moment.


Mindfulness and Your Brain

The Benefits

Mindfulness and Wellbeing

  1. Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology84,822–848.
  2. Grossman, P., Niemann, L., Schmidt, S., & Walach, H. (2004). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health-benefits: A meta-analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research57(1), 35–43.
  3. Fenros, L., Furhoff, A. & Wanbdell, P. (2008). Improving quality of life using compound mind-body therapies: Evaluation of a course intervention with body movement and breath therapy, guided imagery, chakra experiencing and mindfulness meditation. Quality of Life Research: An International Journal of Quality of Life Aspects of Treatment, Care & Rehabilitation, 17(30, 367-376.
  4. Hamilton, N., Kitzman, H. & Guyotte, S. (2006). Enhancing health and emotion: Mindfulness as a missing link between cognitive therapy and positive psychology. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 20(2), 123-134.
  5. Kingston, J., Chadwick, P., Meron, D., & Skinner, T. (2007). A pilot randomized control trial investigating the effect of mindfulness practice on pain tolerance, psychological well-being, and psysiological ctivity. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 62(3), 297-300.
  6. McFadden, S. (2008), Mindfulness, vulnerability, and love: Spiritual lessons from frail elders, earnest young pilgrims, and middle aged rockers. Journal of Aging Studies, 22(2). 132-139.

Mindfulness and Education

Mindfulness and Your Attention Span

  1. Anderson, M., Lau, M., Segal, Z., & Bishop, S. (2007). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and attentional control. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 14(6), 449-463.
  2. Baijal, S. & Gupta, R. (2008). Meditation-based training: A possible intervention for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder? Psychiatry, 5(4), 48-55.
  3. Chambers, R., Lo. B., & Allen, B. (2008). The impact of intensive mindfulness training on attentional control, cognitive style, and affect. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32(3), 303-322.
  4. Jha, A., Krompinger, J., & Baime, M. (2007). Mindfulness training modifies subsystems of attention. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 7(2), 109-119.
  5. Khalsa, S., Rudrauf, D., Damasio, A., Davidson, R., Lutz, A. & Tranel, D. (2008). Interoceptive awareness in experienced meditators. Psychophysiology, 45(4), 671-677.
  6. Ortner, C., Kilner, S., & Zelazo, P. (2007). Mindfulness meditation and reduced emotional interference on a cognitive task. Motivation and Emotion, 31(4), 271-283.
  7. Philipsen, A., Richter, H., Peters, J. et al. (2007). Structured group psychotherapy in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Results of an open multicentre study. Journal of Nervous and mental Disease, 195(12), 1013-1019.
  8. Tang, Y., Ma, Y., Mang, J. et al. (2007). Short-term meditation training improves attention and self-regulation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 104(43), 17152-17156.
  9. Zylowska, L., Ackerman, D., Yang, M et al (2008). Mindfulness meditation training in adults and adolescents with ADHD: A feasibility study. Journal of Attention Disorders, 11(6). 737-746.

Mindfulness and Depression

  1. Broderick, P. (2005). Mindfulness and coping with dysphoric mood: Contrasts with rumination and distraction. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29(5), 501-510.
  2. Coelho, H., Canter, P., & Ernst, E. (2007). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: Evaluating current evidence and informing future research. Journal of consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75(6), 1000-1005.
  3. Fennell, M. (2004). Depression, low self-esteem and mindfulness. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42, 1053-1067.
  4. Finucane A, & Mercer SW. (2006). An exploratory mixed methods study of the acceptability and effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for patients with active depression and anxiety in primary care. BMC Psychiatry, 6, 14.
  5. Harley, R., Sprich, S., Safren, S. et al. (2008). Adaptation of dialectical behavior therapy skills training group for treatment-resistant depression. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 196(2), 136-143.
  6. Kenny, M. & Williams, J. (2007). Treatment-resistant depressed patients show a good response to Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy. Behavior Research and Therapy, 45, 617-625.
  7. Kingston, T., Dooley, B., Bates, A. et al. (2007). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for residual depressive symptoms. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 80(2), 193-203.
  8. Ma, S., & Teasdale, J. (2004). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: Replication and exploration of differential relapse prevention effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(1), 31-40.
  9. Mason, O., & Hargreaves, I. (2001). A qualitative study of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 74(2), 197-212.
  10. Ramel,W., Goldin, P., Carmna, P., & McQuaid. (2004). The effects of mindfulness meditation on cognitive processes and affect in patients with past depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28(4), 433-455.
  11. Russell, S., Browne, J. (2005). Staying well with bipolar disorder. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 39(3), 187-193
  12. Semple, R. (2004). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach to preventing relapse. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 18(4), 370-371.
  13. Smith, A., Graham, L., & Senthinathan, S. (2007). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for recurring depression in older people: A qualitative study. Aging and Mental health, 11(3), 346-357.
  14. Teasdale, J., Segal, Z., Williams, J., Ridgeway, V., Soulsby, J., & Lau, M.A. (2000). Prevention of relapse/recurrence in major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(4), 615-623.
  15. Verplanken, B., Friborg, O., Wang, C., Trafimow, D., & Woolf, K. (2007). Mental Habits: Metacognitive reflection on negative self-thinking. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(3), 526-541.
  16. Waller, B., Carlson, J., & Englar-Carlson, M. Treatment and relapse prevention of depression using mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and Adlerian concepts. Journal of Individual Psychology, 62(4), 443-454.
  17. Williams, J., Russell, I., & Russell, D. (2008). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: further issued in current evidence and future research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(3), 524-529.
  18. Williams, J., Alatiz, Y., Crane, C. et al. (2008). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) in bipolar disorder: Preliminary evaluation of immediate effects on between-episode functioning. Journal of Affective Disorders, 107(11-3), 275-279.
  19. Williams, J., Duggen, D., Crane, C. et al. (2006). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for prevention of recurrence of suicidal behavior. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(2), 201-210.
  20. Williams, J., Teasdale, J., Segal, Z., & Soulsby, J. (2000). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy reduces overgeneral autobiographical memory in formerly depressed patients. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109(1), 150-155.
  21. Zvolensky, M., Solomon, S., McLeish, A., Cassidy, D., Bernstein, A., Bowman. C., & Yartz, A. (2006). Incremental validity of mindfulness-based attention in relation to the concurrent prediction of anxiety and depressive symptomatology and perceptions of health. Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy, 35(3), 148-58.

Mindfulness and Anxiety

  1. Bogels, S., Sijbers, G., & Vonken, M. (2006). Mindfulness and task concentration training for social phobia: a pilot study. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 20(1), 33-22.
  2. Bondolfi, G. (2005). Mindfulness and anxiety disorders: possible developments. Constructivism in the Human Sciences, 10(1), 45-52.
  3. Jain, S., Shapiro, S., Swanick, S. et al (2007). A randomized controlled trail of mindfulness meditation versus relaxation training: Effects on distress, positive states of mind, rumination, and distraction. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 33(1), 11-21.
  4. Kabat-Zinn, J., Massion, A. O., Kristeller, J., Peterson, L., Fletcher, K. E., Pbert, L., et al. (1992). Effectiveness of a meditation-based stress reduction program in the treatment of anxiety disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149(7), 936-943.
  5. Miller, J, Fletcher, K., & Kabat-Zinn, J. (1995). Three-year follow-up and clinical implications of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction intervention in the treatment of anxiety disorders. General Hospital Psychiatry, 17, 192-200.
  6. Pearl, J., & Carlozzi, A. (1994). Effect of meditation on empathy and anxiety. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 78, 297-298.
  7. Ree, M. & Craigie, M. (2007). Outcomes following mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in a heterogeneous sample of adult outpatients. Behavior Change, 24(2), 70-86.
  8. Rude, S., Maestas, FK., & Neff, K. (2007). Paying attention to distress: What’s wrong with rumination? Cognition and Emotion, 21(4), 843-864.
  9. Toneatto, T, & Nguyen, L. (2007). Does mindfulness meditation improve anxiety and mood symptoms? A review of the controlled research. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 52(4), 260-266.
  10. Toneatto, T. (2002). A metacognitive therapy for anxiety disorders: Buddhist psychology applied. Cognitive & Behavioral Practice, 9(1), 72-78.
  11. Verplanken, B., Friborh, O., Wang, C. et al. (2007). Mental habits: Metacognitive reflection on negative self-thinking. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(3), 526-541.
  12. Zvolensky, M., Solomon, S., McLeish, A., Cassidy, D., Bernstein, A., Bowman. C., & Yartz, A. (2006). Incremental validity of mindfulness-based attention in relation to the concurrent prediction of anxiety and depressive symptomatology and perceptions of health. Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy, 35(3), 148-58.
  13. Evans, S., Ferrando, S., Findler, M., Stowell, C., Smart, C., & Haglin, D. (2008). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22(4), 716-721.
  14. Orsillo, S., Roemer, & Barlow, D. (2003). Integrating acceptance and mindfulness into existing cognitive-behavioral treatment for GAD: A case study. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 10, 223-230.
  15. Roemer, E. & Orsillo, S. (2007). An open trial of an acceptance-based behavior therapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Behavior Therapy, 38, 72-85.
  16. Roemer, L., & Orsillo, S. (2002). Expanding our conceptualization of and treatment for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Integrating mindfulness/acceptance-based approaches with existing cognitive-behavioral models. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9(1), 54-68.
  17. Wells, A. (2002). GAD, metacognition, and mindfulness: An information processing analysis. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9(9), 95-100.
  18. Wells, A. & King, P. (2006). Metacognitive therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: An open trial. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 37(3), 206-212.

Mindfulness and Social Anxiety

  1. Bogels, S., Sijbers, G. & Vonken, M. (2006). Mindfulness and task concentration training for social phobia: A pilot study. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 20(1). 33-44.
  2. Koszycki, D., Benger, M., Shlik, J., & Bradwejn (2007). Randomized trial of a mindfulness-based stress reduction program and cognitive behavior therapy in generalized social anxiety disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(10), 2518-2526.

Mindfulness and the Development of Empathy and Interpersonal Skills 

  1. Avey, J., Wernsing, T. & Luthans, F. (2008). Can positive employees help positive organizational change? Impact of psychological capital and emotions on relevant attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 44(1), 48-70.
  2. Barnes, S., Brown, K., Krusemark, E., et al. (2007). The role of mindfulness in romantic relationship satisfaction and responses to relationship stress. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33(4), 482-500.
  3. Block-Lerner, J., Adair, C., Plumb, J. et al. (2007). The case for mindfulness-based approaches in the cultivation of empathy: Does nonjudgmental, present-moment awareness increase capacity for perspective-taking and empathic concern? Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33(4), 501-516.
  4. Burpee, L. & Langer, E. (2005). Mindfulness and marital satisfaction. Journal of Adult Development, 12(1), 43-51.
  5. Carson, J., Carson, K., Gil, K. et al. (2007). Self-expansion as a mediator of relationship improvements in a mindfulness intervention. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33(4), 517-528.
  6. Christensen, A., Atkins, D., Yi, J., Baucom, D. & George, W. (2006). Couple and individual adjustment for 2 years following a randomized clinical trial comparing traditional versus integrative behavioral couple therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(6), 1180-1191.
  7. Decety, J. & Jackson, P. (2004). The functional architecture of human empathy. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews, 3(2), 71-100.
  8. Dekeyser, M., Raes, F., Leijssen, M et al. (2008). Mindfulness skills and interpersonal behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(5). 1235-1245.
  9. Gehart, D., McCollum, E. (2007). Engaging suffering: towards a mindful re-visioning of family therapy practice. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33(2), 214-226.
  10. Lakey, C., Kernis, M., Heppner, W., & Lance, D. (2008). Individual differences in authenticity and mindfulness as predictors of verbal defensiveness. Journal of Research in Personality, 42(1), 230-238.
  11. Samuelson, M., Carmody, J., Kabat-Zinn, J et al. (2007). Mindfulness-based stress reduction in Massachusetts correctional facilities. The Prison Journal, 87(2), 254-268.
  12. Singer, T. (2006). The neuronal basis and ontogeny of empathy and mind reading: Review of literature and implications for future research. Neuroscience and Behavioral Reviews, 30, 855-863.
  13. Vignemont, F. & Singer, T. (2006). The empathic brain: how, when and why? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10(10). online
  14. Wachs, K. & Cordovea, J. (2007). Mindful relating: Exploring mindfulness and emotion repertoires in intimate relationships. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33(4), 464-481.

Mindfulness and Substance Use / Misuse 

  1. Alterman, A., Koppenhaver, J., Mulholland, E., Ladden, L., & Baime, M. (2004). Pilot trial of effectiveness of mindfulness meditation for substance abuse patients. Journal of Substance Use, 9(6), 259-268.
  2. Bootzin, R., & Stevens, S. (2005). Adolescents, substance abuse, and the treatment of insomnia and daytime sleepiness. Clinical Psychology Review, 25(5), 629-644.
  3. Bowen, S., Witkiewitz, K., Dillworth, T., Chawla, N., Simpson, T., Ostafin, B., Larimer, M., Blume, A., Parks, G., & Marlatt, G. (2006). Mindfulness meditation and substance use in an incarcerated population. Psychol Addict Behav, 20(3), 343-347.
  4. Breslin, F., Zack, M., & McMain, S. (2002). An information-procession analysis of mindfulness: implications for relapse prevention in the treatment of substance abuse. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9(3), 275-299.
  5. Brown, S., Witkiewitz, K., Dillworth, T., & Marlatt, G. (2007). The role of thought suppression in the relationship between mindfulness meditation and alcohol use. Addictive Behaviors, 32(10), 2324-2328.
  6. Brown, S., Witkiewitz, K., Dillworth, T. et al. (2006). Mindfulness meditation and substance use in an incarcerated population. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 20(3), 343-347.
  7. Chatziasarantis, N. & Hagger, M. (2007). Mindfulness and the intention-behavior relationship within the theory of planned behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33(5), 663-373.
  8. Hoppes K. (2006). The application of mindfulness-based cognitive interventions in the treatment of co-occurring addictive and mood disorders. CNS Spectr, 11(11), 829-851.
  9. Kavanagh, D., Andrade, J., & May, J. (2004). Beating the urge: implications of research into substance-related desires. Advances in Mind-Body Medicine, 20(2), 20-29.
  10. Leigh, J., Bowen, S., & Marlatt, G. (2005). Spirituality, mindfulness, and substance abuse. Addictive Behaviors, 30(7), 1335-1341.
  11. Margolin, A., Schuman-Olivier, Z., Beitel, M., Arnold, R. et al. (2007). A preliminary study of spiritual self-schema (3-S-super(+)) therapy for reducing impulsivity in HIV-positive drug users. Journal of Clinical psychology, 63(10), 979-999.
  12. Marlatt, A. (2006). Mindfulness meditation: Reflections from a personal journey. Current Psychology, 25(3), 155-172.
  13. Marlatt, A. (2002). Buddhist philosophy and the treatment of addictive behavior. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 9, 44-50.
  14. Witkiewitz, K., Marlatt, G., & Walker, D. (2005). Mindfulness-based relapse prevention for alcohol and substance use disorders. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 19(3), 211-228.
  15. Witkiewitz, K., & Marlatt, G.A. (2004). Relapse prevention for alcohol and drug problems: That was Zen, this is Tao. American Psychologist, 59(4), 224-235.

Mindfulness and Trauma

  1. Meili, T. & Kabat-Zinn, J. (2004). The power of the human heart: a story of trauma and recovery and its implications for rehabilitation and healing. Advances in Mind/Body Medicine, 20, 6-16.
  2. Michal, M., Beutel, M, Jordan, J. et al. (2007). Depersonalization, mindfulness, and childhood trauma. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 195(8), 693-696.
  3. Miller, J. (1993). The unveiling of traumatic memories and emotions through mindfulness and concentration meditation: clinical implications and three case reports. The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 25(2), 169-176.
  4. Orsillo,, S. & Batten, S. (2005). Acceptance and commitment therapy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Behavior Modification, 29(1), 95-129.
  5. Schmidt, A. & Miller, J. (2004). Healing trauma with meditation. Tricycle, 40-43.
  6. Speckens, A., Ehlers, A., Hackmann, A. et al. (2007). Intrusive memories and rumination in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder: a phenomenological comparison. Memory, 15(3), 249-257.
  7. Urbanowski, F., & Miller, J. (1996). Trauma, psychotherapy, and meditation. The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 28(1), 31-47.

Mechanisms of Mindfulness: 

Understanding Your Brain and the Effects of Mindfulness

  1. Arch, J. & Craske, M. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness: Emotion regulation following a focused breathing induction. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(12),1849-1858.
  2. Bishop, S. et al (2003). Clarifying the construct of mindfulness in the context of emotion regulation and the process of change in therapy. Clinical psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 255-262.
  3. Coffey, K. & Hartman, M. (2008). Mechanisms of action in the inverse relationship between mindfulness and psychological distress. Complementary Health Practice Review, 13(2). 79-91.
  4. Doss, B., Thum, Y., Sevier, M., Atkins, D., & Christensen, A. (2005). ?Improving relationships: Mechanisms of change in couple therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(4), 624-633.
  5. Hayes, S., & Feldman, G. (2004). Clarifying the construct of mindfulness in the context of emotion regulation and the process of change in therapy. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 255-262.
  6. Herndon, F. Testing mindfulness with perceptual and cognitive factors: External vs. Internal encoding, and the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. Personality and Individual differences, 44(1), 32-41.
  7. Lynch, T., Chapman, A., Rosenthal, M., Kuo, J., & Linehan (2006). Mechanisms of change in dialectical behavior therapy: Theoretical and empirical observations. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(4), 459-480.
  8. Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Astin, J., & Freedman, B. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(3), 373-386.
  9. Siegel, D. (2007). Mindfulness training and neural integration: Differentiation of distinct streams of awareness and the cultivation of well-being. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 2(4), 259-263.
  10. Walsh, R. & Shapiro, S. (2006). The Meeting of Meditative Disciplines and Western Psychology: A Mutually Enriching Dialogue. American Psychologist, 61(3), 227-239.

Mindfulness Practice and NEUROBIOLOGY/ PHYSIOLOGY

  1. Barnhofer, T., Duggan, D., Crane, C., Hepburn, S., Fennell, M., Williams, J. (2007). Effects of meditation on frontal alpha-asymmetry in previously suicidal individuals. Neuroreport, 18(7), 709-712.
  2. Brefczynski-Lewis, J., Lutz, A., Schaefer, H. et al. (2007). Neural correlates of attentional expertise in long-term meditation practitioners. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(27), 11483-11488.
  3. Burgdorf, J. & Panksepp, J. (2006). The neurobiology of positive emotions. Neuroscience and Behavioral Reviews, 30, 173-187.
  4. Cahn, B., & Polich, J. Meditation states and traits: EEG, ERP, and neuroimaging studies. Psychological Bulletin, 132(2), 180-211.
  5. Corrigan, F. (2004). Psychotherapy as assisted homeostasis: Activation of emotional processing mediated by the anterior cingulated cortex. Medical Hypotheses, 63(6), 968-973.
  6. Creswell, D., Way, B., Eisenberger, N. et al. (2007). Neural correlates of dispositional mindfulness during affect labeling. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69(6), 560-565.
  7. Davidson, R. (2003). Affective neuroscience and psychophysiology: Toward a synthesis. Psychophysiology, 40(5), 655-665.
  8. Davidson, R. J., Kabat-Zinn, J., Schumacher, J., Rosenkranz, M., Muller, D., Santorelli, S., et al. (2003). Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65(4), 564-570.
  9. Decety, J. & Chaminade, T. (2003). When the self represents the other: A new cognitive neuroscience view on psychological identification. Consciousness and Cognition, 12, 577-596.
  10. Ditto, B., Eclache, M., Goldman, N. (2006). Short-term autonomic and cardiovascular effects of mindfulness body scan meditation. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 32(3), 227-234.
  11. Farb, N., Segal, Z., Mayberg, H., et al (2007). Attending to the present: Mindfulness meditation reveals distinct neural modes of self-reference. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 2(4), 313-322.
  12. Holzel, B., Ott, U., Gard, T. et al. (2008). Investigation of mindfulness meditation practitioners with voxel-based morphometry. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 3(1), 55-61.
  13. Gusnard, D., Akbudak, E., Schulman, G. & Raichle, M. (2001). Medial prefrontal cortex and self-referential mental activity: relation to a default mode of brain function. PNAS, 98(7), 4259-4264.
  14. Kozasa, E., Radvany, H., Barreiros, M., Leite, J. & Amaro, E. (2008). Preliminary functional magnetic resonance imaging Stroop task results before and after a Zen meditation retreat. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 62(3), 366.
  15. Lazar, S., Kerr, C., Wasserman, R., Gray, J., Greve, D., Treadway, M., et al. (2005). Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness. NeuroReport, 16(17), 1893-1897.
  16. Low, C., Stanton, A., & Bower, J. (2008). Effects of acceptance-oriented versus evaluative emotional processing on heart rate recovery and habituation. Emotion, 8(3), 419-424.
  17. Lutz, A., Breczynski-Lewis, J., Johnstone, T. & Davidson, R. (2007). Regulation of the neural circuitry of emotion by compassion meditation: Effects of meditative expertise. Plos NOE 3(3): e1897.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001897
  18. Lutz, A., Greischar, L., Rawlings, N., Richard, M., & Davidson, R. (2004). Long-term meditators self-induce high-amplitude gamma synchrony during mental practice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 101(46), 16369-16373.
  19. Lutz, A., Slagter, H., Dunne, J. & Davidson, R. (2008). Attention regulation and monitoring in meditation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12(4), online
  20. O’Loughlin, R. & Zukerman, M. (2008). Mindfulness as a moderator of the relationship between DHEA and reported physical symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(5), 1193-1202.
  21. Ryback, D. (2006). Self-determination and the neurology of mindfulness. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 46(4), 474-493.
  22. Seeman, T., Dubin, L., & Seeman, M. (2003). Religiosity/spirituality and health: a critical review of the evidence for biological pathways. American Psychologist, 58(1), 53-63.
  23. Siegel, D. (2007). Mindfulness training and neural integration: Differentiation of distinct streams of awareness and the cultivation of well-being. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 2(4), 259-263.
  24. Smith, J. (2004). Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation: three caveats. Psychosomatic Medicine, 66, 148-152.
  25. Takahashi, T., Murata, T., Hamada, T, Omori, M., Kosaka, H., Kikuchi, M., Yoshida, H., & Wada, Y. (2005). Changes in EEG and autonomic nervous activity during meditation and their association with personality traits. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 55(2) 199-207.
  26. Valentine, E., and Sweet, P. (1999) Meditation and attention: A comparison of the effects of concentrative and mindfulness meditation on sustained attention. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 2(1), 59-70.
  27. Wallace, R., Benson, H., & Wilson, A. (1971). A wakeful hypometabolic physiological state. American Journal of Physiology, 221(3), 795-799.


%d bloggers like this: